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Tuesday, 29 November 2011

Assignment 2...(Teori Psikoanalisis Freud)

Teori Kepribadian Psikoanalisis
Ditengah-tengah psikologi yang memprioritaskan penelitian atas kesadaran dan memandang kesadaran sebagai aspek utama dari kehidupan mental itu munculah seorang dokter muda dari Wina dengan gagasannya yang radikal. Dokter muda yang dimaksud adalah Sigmund Freud, yang mengemukakan gagasan bahwa kesadaran itu hanyalah bagian kecil saja dari kehidupan mental, sedangkan bagian yang terbesarnya adalah justru ketaksadaran atau alam tak sadar. Freud mengibaratkan alam sadar dan tak sadar itu dengan sebuah gunung es yang terapung di mana bagian yang muncul ke permukaan air (alam sadar) jauh lebih kecil daripada bagian yang tenggelam (alam tak sadar)..
Di samping gagasan tersebut di atas, masih banyak gagasan besar dan penting Freud lainnya yang menjadikan ia dipandang sebagai seorang yang revolusioner dan sangat berpengaruh bukan saja untuk bidang psikologi atau psikiatri, melainkan juga untuk bidang-bidang lain yang mencakup sosiologi, antropologi, ilmu polilik, filsafat, dan kesusastraan atau kesenian. Untuk bidang psikologi, khususnya psikologi kepribadian dan lebih khusus lagi teori kepribadian, pengaruh Freud dengan psikoanalisis yang dikembangkannya dapat dilihat dari fakta, bahwa sebagian besar teori kepribadian modern teorinya tentang tingkah laku (kepribadian) mengambil sebagian, atau setidaknya mempersoalkan, gagasan-gagasan Freud. Dan psikoanalisis itu sendiri, sebagai aliran yang utama dalam psikologi memiliki teori kepribadian yang gampangnya kita sebut teori kepribadian psikoanalisis (psychoanalitic theory of personality).
Struktur Kepribadian
Teori psikoanalisis struktur kepribadian manusia terdiri dari id, ego dan superego. Id adalah struktur paling mendasar dari kepribadian, seluruhnya tidak disadari dan bekerja menurut prinsip kesenangan, tujuannya pemenuhan kepuasan yang segera. Ego berkembang dari id, struktur kepribadian yang mengontrol kesadaran dan mengambil keputusan atas perilaku manusia. Superego, berkembang dari ego saat manusia mengerti nilai baik buruk dan moral. Superego merefleksikan nilai-nilai sosial dan menyadarkan individu atas tuntutan moral. Apabila terjadi pelanggaran nilai, superego menghukum ego dengan menimbulkan rasa salah.
Gerald Corey menyatakan dalam perspektif aliran Freud ortodoks, manusia dilihat sebagai sistem energi, dimana dinamika kepribadian itu terdiri dari cara-cara untuk mendistribusikan energi psikis kepada id, ego dan super ego, tetapi energi tersebut terbatas. Maka, satu diantara tiga sistem itu memegang kontrol atas energi yang ada dengan mengorbankan dua sistem lainnya. Jadi, kepribadian manusia itu sangat ditentukan oleh energi psikis yang menggerakkan.
Menurut Calvin S. Hall dan Lindzey, dalam psikodinamika masing-masing bagian dari kepribadian total mempunyai fungsi, sifat, komponen, prinsip kerja dinamika dan mekanisme tersendiri. Namun semuanya berinteraksi begitu erat satu sama lainnya, sehingga tidak mungkin dipisahkan. Id bagian tertua dari aparatur mental dan merupakan komponen terpenting sepanjang hidup. Id dan insting-insting lainnya mencerminkan tujuan sejati kehidupan organisme individual. Jadi, id merupakan pihak dominan dalam kemitraan struktur kepribadian manusia.
Menurut S. Hall dan Lindzey, dalam Sumadi Suryabarata, cara kerja masing-masing struktur dalam pembentukan kepribadian adalah: (1) apabila rasa id-nya menguasai sebahagian besar energi psikis itu, maka pribadinya akan bertindak primitif, implusif dan agresif dan ia akan mengubar impuls-impuls primitifnya, (2) apabila rasa ego-nya menguasai sebagian besar energi psikis itu, maka pribadinya bertindak dengan cara-cara yang realistik, logis, dan rasional, dan (3) apabila rasa super ego-nya menguasai sebagian besar energi psikis itu, maka pribadinya akan bertindak pada hal-hal yang bersifat moralitas, mengejar hal-hal yang sempurna yang kadang-kadang irasional.
Jadi, untuk lebih jelasnya sistem kerja ketiga struktur kepribadian manusia tersebut adalah: Pertama, Id merupakan sistem kepribadian yang orisinil, dimana ketika manusia itu dilahirkan ia hanya memiliki Id saja, karena ia merupakan sumber utama dari energi psikis dan tempat timbulnya insting. Id tidak memiliki organisasi, buta, dan banyak tuntutan dengan selalu memaksakan kehendaknya. Seperti yang ditegaskan oleh A. Supratika, bahwa aktivitas Id dikendalikan oleh prinsip kenikmatan dan proses primer.
Kedua, Ego mengadakan kontak dengan dunia realitas yang ada di luar dirinya. Di sini ego berperan sebagai “eksekutif” yang memerintah, mengatur dan mengendalikan kepribadian, sehingga prosesnya persis seperti “polisi lalulintas” yang selalu mengontrol jalannya id, superego dan dunia luar. Ia bertindak sebagai penengah antara insting dengan dunia di sekelilingnya. Ego ini muncul disebabkan oleh kebutuhan-kebutuhan dari suatu organisme, seperti manusia lapar butuh makan. Jadi lapar adalah kerja Id dan yang memutuskan untuk mencari dan mendapatkan serta melaksanakan itu adalah kerja ego. Sedangkan yang ketiga, superego adalah yang memegang keadilan atau sebagai filter dari kedua sistem kepribadian, sehingga tahu benar-salah, baik-buruk, boleh-tidak dan sebagainya. Di sini superego bertindak sebagai sesuatu yang ideal, yang sesuai dengan norma-norma moral masyarakat.
Perkembangan Kepribadian
Perkembangan manusia dalam psikoanalisis merupakan suatu gambaran yang sangat teliti dari proses perkembangan psikososial dan psikoseksual, mulai dari lahir sampai dewasa. Dalam teori Freud setiap manusia harus melewati serangkaian tahap perkembangan dalam proses menjadi dewasa. Tahap-tahap ini sangat penting bagi pembentukan sifat-sifat kepribadian yang bersifat menetap.
Menurut Freud, kepribadian orang terbentuk pada usia sekitar 5-6 tahun (A.Supratika, 1984), yaitu: (1) tahap oral, (2) tahap anal: 1-3 tahun, (3) tahap palus: 3-6 tahun, (4) tahap laten: 6-12 tahun, (5) tahap genetal: 12-18 tahun, (6) tahap dewasa, yang terbagi dewasa awal, usia setengah baya dan usia senja.
Aplikasi Teori Sigmund Freud
Pertama, konsep kunci bahwa ”manusia adalah makhluk yang memiliki kebutuhan dan keinginan”. Konsep ini dapat dikembangkan dalam proses bimbingan, dengan melihat hakikatnya manusia itu memiliki kebutuhan-kebutuhan dan keinginan-keinginan dasar. Dengan demikian konselor dalam memberikan bimbingan harus selalu berpedoman kepada apa yang dibutuhkan dan yang diinginkan oleh konseli, sehingga bimbingan yang dilakukan benar-benar efektif. Hal ini sesuai dengan fungsi bimbingan itu sendiri. Mortensen (Yusuf Gunawan, 2001) membagi fungsi bimbingan kepada tiga yaitu: (1) memahami individu (understanding-individu), (2) preventif dan pengembangan individual, dan (3) membantu individu untuk menyempurnakannya. Memahami individu. Seorang guru dan pembimbing dapat memberikan bantuan yang efektif jika mereka dapat memahami dan mengerti persoalan, sifat, kebutuhan, minat, dan kemampuan anak didiknya. Karena itu bimbingan yang efektif menuntut secara mutlak pemahaman diri anak secara keseluruhan. Karena tujuan bimbingan dan pendidikan dapat dicapai jika programnya didasarkan atas pemahaman diri anak didiknya. Sebaliknya bimbingan tidak dapat berfungsi efektif jika konselor kurang pengetahuan dan pengertian mengenai motif dan tingkah laku konseling, sehingga usaha preventif dan treatment tidak dapat berhasil baik. Preventif dan pengembangan individual. Preventif dan pengembangan merupakan dua sisi dari satu mata uang. Preventif berusaha mencegah kemorosotan perkembangan anak dan minimal dapat memelihara apa yang telah dicapai dalam perkembangan anak melalui pemberian pengaruh-pengaruh yang positif, memberikan bantuan untuk mengembangkan sikap dan pola perilaku yang dapat membantu setiap individu untuk mengembangkan dirinya secara optimal. Membantu individu untuk menyempurnakan. Setiap manusia pada saat tertentu membutuhkan pertolongan dalam menghadapi situasi lingkungannya. Pertolongan setiap individu tidak sama. Perbedaan umumnya lebih pada tingkatannya dari pada macamnya, jadi sangat tergantung apa yang menjadi kebutuhan dan potensi yang ia miliki. Bimbingan dapat memberikan pertolongan pada anak untuk mengadakan pilihan yang sesuai dengan potensi dan kemampuan yang dimilikinya. Jadi dalam konsep yang lebih luas, dapat dikatakan bahwa teori Freud dapat dijadikan pertimbangan dalam melakukan proses bantuan kepada konseling, sehingga metode dan materi yang digunakan sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keinginan individu.
Kedua, konsep kunci tentang “kecemasan” yang dimiliki manusia dapat digunakan sebagai wahana pencapaian tujuan bimbingan, yakni membantu individu supaya mengerti dirinya dan lingkungannya; mampu memilih, memutuskan dan merencanakan hidup secara bijaksana; mampu mengembangkan kemampuan dan kesanggupan, memecahkan masalah yang dihadapi dalam kehidupannya; mampu mengelola aktivitasnya sehari-hari dengan baik dan bijaksana; mampu memahami dan bertindak sesuai dengan norma agama, sosial dalam masyarakatnya. Dengan demikian kecemasan yang dirasakan akibat ketidakmampuannya dapat diatasi dengan baik dan bijaksana. Karena menurut Freud setiap manusia akan selalu hidup dalam kecemasan, kecemasan karena manusia akan punah, kecemasan karena tidak dapat bersosialisasi dengan lingkungan dan banyak lagi kecemasan-kecemasan lain yang dialami manusia. Jadi bimbingan ini dapat merupakan wadah dalam rangka mengatasi kecemasan.
Ketiga, konsep psikolanalisis yang menekankan pengaruh masa lalu (masa kecil) terhadap perjalanan manusia. Walaupun banyak para ahli yang mengkritik, namun dalam beberapa hal konsep ini sesuai dengan konsep pembinaan dini bagi anak-anak dalam pembentukan moral individual. Dalam sistem pembinaan akhlak individual, Islam menganjurkan agar keluarga dapat melatih dan membiasakan anak-anaknya agar dapat tumbuh berkembang sesuai dengan norma agama dan sosial. Norma-norma ini tidak bisa datang sendiri, akan tetapi melalui proses interaksi yang panjang dari dalam lingkungannya. Bila sebuah keluarga mampu memberikan bimbingan yang baik, maka kelak anak itu diharapkan akan tumbuh menjadi manusia yang baik. Dalam hal ini sebuah hadis Nabi menyatakan bahwa “Setiap anak yang dilahirkan dalam keadaan fitrah, hingga lisannya fasih. Kedua orangtuanyalah yang ikut mewarnainya sampai dewasa.” Selain itu seorang penyair menyatakan bahwa “Tumbuhnya generasi muda kita seperti yang dibiasakan oleh ayah-ibunya”. Hadis dan syair tersebut di atas sejalan dengan konsep Freud tentang kepribadian manusia yang disimpulkannya sangat tergantung pada apa yang diterimanya ketika ia masih kecil. Namun tentu saja terdapat sisi-sisi yang tidak begitu dapat diaplikasikan, karena padahakikatnyamanusiaitujugabersifatbaharu.                                                                                                                                                                            
Keempat, teori Freud tentang “tahapan perkembangan kepribadian individu” dapat digunakan dalam proses bimbingan, baik sebagai materi maupun pendekatan. Konsep ini memberi arti bahwa materi, metode dan pola bimbingan harus disesuaikan dengan tahapan perkembangan kepribadian individu, karena pada setiap tahapan itu memiliki karakter dan sifat yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu konselor yang melakukan bimbingan haruslah selalu melihat tahapan-tahapan perkembangan ini, bila ingin bimbingannya menjadi efektif.
Kelima, konsep Freud tentang “ketidaksadaran” dapat digunakan dalam proses bimbingan yang dilakukan pada individu dengan harapan dapat mengurangi impuls-impuls dorongan Id yang bersifat irrasional sehingga berubah menjadi rasional.

My Assignment... (Abraham Maslow)

 Biography

Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the oldest of seven children. His parents were first generation Jewish immigrants from Russia who were not intellectually oriented but valued education. It was a tough time for Maslow, as he experienced Anti-semitism from his teachers and from other children around the neighborhood. He had various encounters with anti-semitic gangs who would chase and throw rocks at him.[4] The tension outside of his home was also felt within it, he rarely got along with his mother, and eventually developed a strong revulsion to her. He is quoted as saying "What I had reacted to was not only her physical appearance, but also her values and world view, her stinginess, her total selfishness, her lack of love for anyone else in the world -- even her own husband and children -- her narcissism, her Negro prejudice, her exploitation of everyone, her assumption that anyone was wrong who disagreed with her, her lack of friends, her sloppiness and dirtiness..."[5] He also grew up with few friends other than his cousin Will, and as a result "...[He] grew up in libraries and among books."[6] It was here that he developed his love for reading and learning. He went to Boys High School, one of the top high schools in Brooklyn.[7] Here, he served as the officer to many academic clubs, and became editor of the Latin Magazine. He also edited Principia, the school's Physics paper, for a year.[8]
After graduating High School Maslow went to the City College of New York. In 1926 he began taking legal studies classes at night in addition to his undergraduate course load. He hated it and almost immediately dropped out. In 1927 he transferred to Cornell, but due to poor grades and the high cost of the education, he left after just one semester.[9] He re-enrolled at City College and upon graduation went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology. In 1928, he married his first cousin Bertha, whom he had met in Brooklyn years earlier and who was still in high school at the time.[10] Maslow's psychology training at UW was decidedly experimental-behaviorist.[11] At Wisconsin he pursued a line of research which included, investigating primate dominance behaviour and sexuality. Maslow, upon the recommendation of Professor Hulsey Cason wrote his master's thesis on 'learning, retention, and reproduction of verbal material.'[12] Maslow regarded the research as embarrassingly trivial, but he completed his thesis the summer of 1931 and was awarded his master's degree in Psychology.[12] Afterward, he was so ashamed of the thesis that he removed it from the psychology library and tore out its catalog listing.[13] Ironically, Professor Carson admired the research enough to urge Maslow to submit it for publication. Much to Maslow's surprise, his thesis was published as two articles in 1934.[13]
He went on to further research at Columbia University, continuing similar studies; there he found another mentor in Alfred Adler, one of Sigmund Freud's early colleagues.
From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College. In New York he found two more mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. These two were so accomplished in both realms, and such "wonderful human beings" as well, that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behaviour. This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health andhuman potential. He wrote extensively on the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists but adding significantly to them, especially the concepts of ahierarchy of needsmetaneedsmetamotivationself-actualizing persons, and peak experiences.
After a near-fatal heart attack in 1967, Maslow felt that his remaining life would be brief. He regarded himself as a psychological pioneer, broadly exploring new territories of human experience that later investigators would map in detail. By accurately seeing the contours of his intellectually tumultuous life, we are better equipped to create the maps that our world today needs to fulfill our individual and social potential.[14]

Death

Maslow was a professor at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969, and then became a resident fellow of the Laughlin Institute in California. He died of a heart attack on June 8, 1970.[2]

Humanistic theories of self-actualization

Maslow was already a 33-year old father and had to children by the advent of World War II in 1941. He was thus eligible for the military. However, the horrors of war instead inspired a vision of peace in him and this led to his groundbreaking psychological studies of self-actualizing people—beginning with his two favorite mentors: Max Wertheimer and Ruth Benedict. [15]
Many psychologists have made impacts on society's understanding of the world. Abraham Maslow was one of these; he brought a new face to the study of human behavior. He called his new discipline, "Humanistic Psychology."
His family life and his experiences influenced his psychological ideas. After World War II, Maslow began to question the way psychologists had come to their conclusions, and though he didn’t completely disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the human mind.[16]
Humanistic psychologists believe that every person has a strong desire to realize his or her full potential, to reach a level of "self-actualization". To prove that humans are not simply blindly reacting to situations, but trying to accomplish something greater, Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. This informed his theory that people experience “peak experiences", high points in life when the individual is in harmony with himself and his surroundings. In Maslow's view, self-actualized people can have many peak experiences throughout a day while others have those experiences less frequently.[17]
Maslow noticed that self-actualized individuals had a better insight of reality, deeply accepted one-self, others and the world, and also had faced many problems and were known to be impulsive people. These self-actualized individuals were very independent and private when it came to their environment and culture, especially their very own individual development on "potentialities and inner resources". [18]

Hierarchy of Needs

An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom.[19]
A visual aid Maslow created to explain his theory, which he called the Hierarchy of Needs, is a pyramid depicting the levels of human needs, psychological and physical. When a human being ascends the steps of the pyramid he reaches self actualization. At the bottom of the pyramid are the “Basic needs or Physiological needs” of a human being, food and water and sex. The next level is “Safety Needs: Security, Order, and Stability.” These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to accomplish more. The third level of need is “Love and Belonging,” which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem” level, the level of success and status (from self and others). The top of the pyramid, “Need for Self-actualization,” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding. (The Developing Person through the Life Span, (1983) pg. 44)
Maslow based his study on the writings of other psychologists, Albert Einstein and people he knew who clearly met the standard of self actualization. Maslow used Einstein's writings and accomplishments to exemplify the characteristics of the self actualized person. He realized that all the individuals he studied had similar personality traits. All were "reality centered", able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They were also "problem centered", meaning that they treated life’s difficulties as problems that demanded solutions. These individuals also were comfortable being alone and had healthy personal relationships. They had only a few close friends and family rather than a large number of shallow relationships.[20] One historical figure Maslow found to be helpful in his journey to understanding self actualization was Lao Tzu, The Father of Taoism. A tenet of Taoism is that people do not obtain personal meaning or pleasure by seeking material possessions.
When Maslow introduced these ideas some weren't ready to understand them; others dismissed them as unscientific. Sometimes viewed as disagreeing with Freud and psychoanalytic theory, Maslow actually positioned his work as a vital complement to that of Freud. Maslow stated in his book, “It is as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half.” (Toward a psychology of being, 1968) There are two faces of human nature—the sick and the healthy—so there should be two faces of psychology.
Consequently, Maslow argued, the way in which essential needs are fulfilled is just as important as the needs themselves. Together, these define the human experience. To the extent a person finds cooperative social fulfillment, he establishes meaningful relationships with other people and the larger world. In other words, he establishes meaningful connections to an external reality—an essential component of self-actualization. In contrast, to the extent that vital needs find selfish and competitive fulfillment, a person acquires hostile emotions and limited external relationships—his awareness remains internal and limited.
Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer were Maslow's models of self-actualization. From them he generalized that, among other characteristics, self-actualizing people tend to focus on problems outside themselves; have a clear sense of what is true and what is false; are spontaneous and creative; and are not bound too strictly by social conventions.
Beyond the routine of needs fulfillment, Maslow envisioned moments of extraordinary experience, known as Peak experiences, which are profound moments of love, understanding, happiness, or rapture, during which a person feels more whole, alive, self-sufficient and yet a part of the world, more aware of truth, justice, harmony, goodness, and so on. Self-actualizing people have many such peak experiences.
Maslow used the term Metamotivation to describe self actualized people who are driven by innate forces beyond their basic needs, so that they may explore and reach their full human potential[21]

 B-values

In studying accounts of peak experiences, Maslow identified a manner of thought he called "Being-cognition" (or "B-cognition", which is holistic and accepting, as opposed to the evaluative "Deficiency-cognition" or "D-cognition") and values he called "Being-values".[22] He listed the B-values as:
  • WHOLENESS (unity; integration; tendency to one-ness; interconnectedness; simplicity; organization; structure; dichotomy-transcendence; order);
  • PERFECTION (necessity; just-right-ness; just-so-ness; inevitability; suitability; justice; completeness; "oughtness");
  • COMPLETION (ending; finality; justice; "it's finished"; fulfillment; finis and telos; destiny; fate);
  • JUSTICE (fairness; orderliness; lawfulness; "oughtness");
  • ALIVENESS (process; non-deadness; spontaneity; self-regulation; full-functioning);
  • RICHNESS (differentiation, complexity; intricacy);
  • SIMPLICITY (honesty; nakedness; essentiality; abstract, essential, skeletal structure);
  • BEAUTY (rightness; form; aliveness; simplicity; richness; wholeness; perfection; completion; uniqueness; honesty);
  • GOODNESS (rightness; desirability; oughtness; justice; benevolence; honesty);
  • UNIQUENESS (idiosyncrasy; individuality; non-comparability; novelty);
  • EFFORTLESSNESS (ease; lack of strain, striving or difficulty; grace; perfect, beautiful functioning);
  • PLAYFULNESS (fun; joy; amusement; gaiety; humor; exuberance; effortlessness);
  • TRUTH (honesty; reality; nakedness; simplicity; richness; oughtness; beauty; pure, clean and unadulterated; completeness; essentiality).
  • SELF-SUFFICIENCY (autonomy; independence; not-needing-other-than-itself-in-order-to-be-itself; self-determining; environment-transcendence; separateness; living by its own laws).

Legacy

Maslow's thinking was original — most psychologists before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill. He wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Humanistic psychology gave rise to several different therapies, all guided by the idea that people possess the inner resources for growth and healing and that the point of therapy is to help remove obstacles to individuals' achieving them. The most famous of these was client-centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers.
Maslow was one of the founders of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, which printed its first issue in early 1961, and continues to publish academic papers to this very day. [23]
Maslow's influence extended beyond psychology - his work on peak experiences is relevant to religious studies, while his work on management is applicable totranspersonal business studies.
In 2006, conservative social critic Christina Hoff Sommers and practicing psychiatrist Sally Satel asserted that due to lack of empirical support for his theories, Maslow's ideas have fallen out of fashion and are "no longer taken seriously in the world of academic psychology."[24] However, Maslow's work has enjoyed a revival of interest and influence among leaders of the positive psychology movement such as Martin Seligman.[25]
Maslow is seemingly known as a pioneering psychologist, where he often pointed out promising directions for future psychologists. He helped to answer the following questions: Why don't people self-actualize if their basic needs are met? How can we humanistically understand the problem of evil. [26]
Maslow long believed that leadership should be non-intervening. Consistent with this approach, he rejected a nomination in 1963 to be president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology because he felt that the organization should develop an intellectual movement without a leader.[27]

 Writings

  • A Theory of Human Motivation (originally published in Psychological Review, 1943, Vol. 50 #4, pp. 370–396).
  • Motivation and Personality (1st edition: 1954, 2nd edition: 1970, 3rd edition 1987)
  • Religions, Values and Peak-experiences, Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1964.
  • Eupsychian Management, 1965; republished as Maslow on Management, 1998
  • The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance, New York: Harper & Row, 1966; Chapel Hill: Maurice Bassett, 2002.
  • Toward a Psychology of Being, (2nd edition, 1968)
  • The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, 1971